The second in a series of bite-sized chunks.
I think that many who are new to negotiating think that it's about money, and asking for more money. There's a lot more to negotiating than that - when you're asking for a weekend off rehearsal to go to a friend's wedding, you're negotiating. You can negotiate schedule, level of inclusion in a project's publicity, where your name goes in the program/credits, getting the production company to pay for your dry cleaning, and more.
What you ask for might relate to your non-negotiables, It might relate to your goals as an actor - if you are interested in this project for the level of exposure, you might negotiate to have your name above the title in the postcard, or in a larger font, or that you're in the publicity photo used in the press kit. It might relate to practical issues brought up by the production - they want you to use your own clothes for the costumes (common on indie films), but it's a horror film and you'll be getting spattered in fake blood - can they pay your cleaning bill? You might negotiate the degree of nudity, or the hiring of a coach to help you w/a particular skill you'll need for the project.
In a non-musical where I played a character who sang, the company didn't have any musical director to help me with the songs. I was taking voice lessons at the time, and got the show to pay for two hours of my voice coach's time.
Often though, the negotiation is about money. Think creatively here - are you negotiating relating to transit costs? Could the company buy you a transit pass for the month? A prepaid gas card? I had a company write a check specifically to FasTrak (the bridge toll pass provider in the SF Bay Area) for the total amount of times I'd cross the Golden Gate bridge to do their show. Is food as good as money to you? Maybe the company has a connection to a restaurant you like or a grocery store you frequent - maybe they can give you a Trader Joe's or Starbuck's gift card instead of increasing the stipend.
Really important here is research and careful thought - know what they're offering, what they've offered in the past, and what other companies that are of similar size offer. Figure out what is realistic, given the limitations of the company's time and resources.
When you've figured out what you want to ask for, know what's essential, and what's not - I think the pro-negotiators call this the 'walk-away' or something like that, as in "if I don't get at least $3million for this deal, I'll walk away" So when all is said and done here, you'll have a list of the things you'd like to get from the project, and the things that you must get from the project in order to do it.
Then it's a matter of when to ask, and how, which are, you guessed it, other bite sized chunks...
But in the meantime, are there things I'm not thinking of? What else do you want to ask for?